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It’s hard to believe, but the last day of class – April 29th- is just around the corner! Have you thought about how you want to end the semester? We typically put a lot of thought in to the first day of class, but sometimes fail to put the same effort into the last day. Below are some ideas to consider when planning for the last day to end on a strong note.

Take care of final announcements and administrative duties. This may include reminders regarding the date and location of the final exam or any final assignments, updated office hours for finals week, or CIFs. You may also want to discuss how you use the feedback from students when planning future courses.

Review course material. It is popular to use the last day of class as a review day to prepare for the final exam. Online polls like surveymonkey.com can be administered to the class ahead of time to determine which material to review. Creating a concept map containing the major topics/themes from the course is another great way to review material.

Review course learning goals. Class time can be used to go over the learning goals established at the beginning of the semester. This is a great way to focus the student’s attention while they prepare for their final exams.

Have students reflect on their learning. Another option is to give students time in class to write about their learning. You can ask them to write about their main takeaway from the course and/or what they think they will remember from the course a year from now or 5 years from now.

For more ideas check out the following resources:

  1. The Last Day of Class from UC Berkely’s Center for Teaching and Learning
  2. Teaching Tip: Ending a Course from Ball State University

Debates can be an effective and engaging way for students to analyze different concepts and to develop critical thinking and public speaking skills. They are also a useful technique for achieving greater participation in class and for discussing controversial issues in a structured environment. The Kaneb Center recently hosted a workshop on using debates in the classroom; below are some of the highlights from the workshop:

Choosing a Debate Question

To have a fruitful debate, choose an open question with two (or more) sides that can be reasonably supported with academic evidence. A great place to start is with major debates and schools of thought in your discipline or a moral or ethical question involving the subject matter you are teaching. The question should be simple enough for a non-expert to debate, yet complex enough that students will be able to develop multiple arguments to support their side of the issue. Another helpful way to choose a topic is the fact-value-policy framework. Here are some examples:

  • Fact: “Genetically modified foods are safe to eat.”  This is a disputed statement that allows students to debate the definition of “safe to eat” and the science behind whether the foods are harmful to humans or not.
  • Value: “Preemptive war can be morally justified.” In this statement, students could draw on different societal values and principles to discuss the morality of war.
  • Policy: “Public universities should allow funding for student groups that promote a specific religion.” Policy debates include questions about whether the policy in question is desirable or effective and whether the policy-enacting agency should be the one to make the policy.

Of course, these three types of debate questions often overlap. Use this flexibility to choose a question that is most relevant to your particular course and to your students.

Setting up the Debate

It is important to keep your learning goals in mind as you decide what type of debate to conduct, what question(s) you will use, what roles the students will have, how they will be assigned to teams, and how the debate will be graded. Once you have everything planned, be sure to clearly communicate the information to the students to allow them to fully prepare for the debate. You may also want to provide your students with assigned reading, directions for researching the topic on their own, and the debate rules and etiquette guidelines.

Debate Formats

Classroom debating is an extremely flexible teaching method, so there are many different formats you can follow, depending on your own learning goals and objectives for the class. We’ve outlined several (for individual students, small groups, the full class, or online) in our workshop handout, and many more format suggestions are available online.

Most debates begin with a short period of individual or group preparation, which is a great time for the teacher to listen in on the preparations the group is making and offer suggestions or answer questions before the debate starts. It is also helpful to end the debate with a debriefing stage when the arguments made by both teams can be assessed and students can discuss their ideas independent of the side they were assigned to or chose to argue.

The debate also often includes a time for teams to make opening and closing statements, where they have uninterrupted time to develop their arguments. Other potential debate components include a rebuttal, where Team B can respond to the arguments made by Team A, or a cross-examination, when teams can question each other in a more free-flowing style. In debate styles with smaller teams, this could also be a time for students in the audience to question their peers on the evidence they have used to support their arguments.

Give Debate a Try!

Debate can be a fun and useful active learning technique, and is a great way for students to develop many important skills. For more information about using debate in the classroom, see the resources below. The Kaneb Center also offers individual consultations for Notre Dame faculty and graduate students if you are interested in discussing incorporating debate or other active learning techniques into your course plans.

Additional Resources

Many Sides: Debate Across the Curriculum by Alfred Snider and Maxwell Schnurer

The Debatabase Book: A Must-Have Guide for Successful Debate by Robert Trapp

“Debating the Evidence: An International Review of Current Situation and Perceptions” by Rodie Akerman and Ian Neale

International Debate Education Association


Multiple choice tests are:

  1. the best assessment strategy regardless of the situation
  2. easy to write and easy to grade
  3. unable to accurately measure a student’s knowledge
  4. assessment tools that can be useful in many situations


Multiple choice assessments are one among many assessment tools that can be used to provide formative or summative feedback about a student’s ability to achieve a class’s learning goals. Like any tool, it has strengths and weaknesses, i.e. situations where it will be the right tool for a job and situations where it will be as a hammer to a screw. And to continue the metaphor, before using a tool in any given situation, it is important to ensure that it is the right tool and that it is not faulty.

Some of the strengths of multiple choice tests include the following

  • Objective (limited ambiguity in answers)
  • Grading tends to be easier
  • Statistical analyses are typically more straightforward
  • High reliability and validity when implemented well

While some of their weaknesses revolve around

  • Excessive guessing can skew results
  • Poorly written questions and responses

Another possible weakness is related to the answer space being bounded. It could be argued that a student must only pick the correct answer rather than generating it. This critique holds more weight when the questions or answers are not well-formed, but should be kept in mind when designing problems.

Good practices

  • Use one learning objective per question (avoid trivia)
    • If the question does not match up with a learning goal for the class, then it likely does not need to be tested on. Whereas a question containing multiple learning goals may be overly complicated and will likely be more approachable if split into separate questions.
  • The question (stem) should be a complete statement
    • A well-written question should allow a partial solution to be reached after reading the question but before reading the possible answers. A question/answer set where the question provides no content, ‘Which of the following is true’, should be reworded or restructured.
  • Grammar should match between the stem and the possible responses
    • If one or more of the responses (distractors) differs in person, gender, number, etc. then that answer is more likely to be dismissed by the student, regardless of the actual content.
  • Offer a partial point incentive to limit guessing
    • As an example, for a question where there are four possible answers, assuming no prior knowledge, a guess has a 1 in 4 chance of being correct. As such, offering partial credit of ¼ the total value of the question if it is left blank can help increase the reliability of the test. If someone has partial knowledge and is able to eliminate some number of answers, then they can still benefit from guessing, but for someone who has no knowledge, leaving the question blank is to their benefit and their lack of a guess will better reflect who is confident in their answers. See Ref. 1 for a more in-depth examination of this idea.
  • Vary the number of answers
    • This deals with the problem of guessing in a different manner and is more amenable for problems involving calculation. Instead of using three or four answers, instead provide five, six, or even ten possible choices. The more plausible answers provided, the less likely a guess is to be correct, increasing the reliability of the question. Again see Ref. 1 for a closer examination of this concept.
    • Additionally, if the problem is a calculation, then the majority of the work is solving the problem and the number of answers does not greatly affect the time for the problem. Whereas the time required for a problem where each answer must be read and analyzed will scale with the number of answers


The above are some of the important ideas to keep in mind as you prepare a multiple choice test and if this has whetted your appetite please join us this Friday for the Kaneb’s workshop on “Writing multiple choice questions”.

Additionally, for a deeper exploration of the above topics please see the papers and good practice guides referenced below



Campbell, M. L. Multiple-Choice Exams and Guessing: Results from a One-Year Study of General Chemistry Tests Designed To Discourage Guessing Journal of Chemical Education 2015 ASAP

Towns, M. H. Guide to Developing High-Quality, Reliable, and Valid Multiple-Choice Assessments Journal of Chemical Education 2014 91 1426-1431


Other Useful Links




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The Kaneb Center recently hosted a workshop on facilitating discussion in the social sciences and humanities. The panel was led by four Notre Dame faculty members who utilize discussion in their classes, and provided reflections on and methods for leading effective discussions. Below are some of the highlights of the workshop:


JoAnn DellaNeva, Associate Dean for Undergraduate Studies, Professor of French

Romana Huk, Associate Professor of English

Julianne C. Turner, Associate Professor of Psychology

Christina Wolbrecht, Associate Professor of Political Science



  • Emphasize discussion’s importance. If you are planning to use discussion in your course, be sure to include language in your syllabus and talk with your students about how classroom discussions fit your learning goals. Discussion is a technique that requires joint responsibility for students’ learning, so it is important that everyone is prepared to participate.
  • Grade it. You can give students an incentive to participate in class by making participation a portion of their overall grade. Be clear about your expectations and what “counts” as participation, as well as how you will evaluate it. You may also want to give students a participation grade update midway through the semester so they can adjust accordingly.
  • Schedule it. Students will be more or less likely to participate in discussions depending on what else is going on in the course; for instance, if you want students to participate in a deep discussion of the course material, schedule the discussion for a day other than the due date of an important paper. You may also consider having a discussion on the students’ papers. Be sure to consider readings, assignments, vacation days, etc. when planning your class discussions.


  • Get everyone participating. The beginning of the semester is crucial for establishing students’ voices in the discussion. Students are even less likely to participate in later classes if they are not asked to participate early on. Look for ways to get students engaged on the first day by holding a mini discussion and calling on students or asking everyone to answer a broad question.
  • Create a respectful environment. In addition to making sure that everyone participates, make sure that each person’s voice is respected and heard. Give students opportunities to participate without having to provide a definitive “right” or “wrong” answer, and handle off-topic responses by trying to pull something useful out of the comment or redirect it to encourage other students to chime in.
  • Get to know your students. And have them get to know each other too! This will not only help build a respectful environment, but also generate a more free-flowing discussion. Use icebreakers or nametags to help you and the students learn names.


  • Lead into difficult topics. Once you have established a healthy discussion environment by discussing less-controversial topics early in the semester, it will be easier to discuss difficult topics later on.
  • Prepare and (if necessary) repair. Before discussing difficult topics, remind your students that you will discuss ideas that may challenge their points of view, but that you will work to maintain a respectful environment. If problems arise in the course of the discussion, talk to students individually and confidentially to restore a healthy balance.
  • Represent different opinions. Certain opinions may be less likely to be raised in class, so you as the discussion leader may have to represent different perspectives. Try to avoid putting the burden on students to represent the views of a particular social group, but rather look for ways to ensure different groups and ideas are represented in your discussions and course materials.

Thanks to our four panelists for their excellent advice! For additional resources on leading effective classroom discussions, check out:

The Art of Discussion-Based Teaching: Opening Up Conversation in the Classroom by John E. Henning

Discussion As a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms by Stephen D. Brookfield and Stephen Preskill

Talk, Talk, Talk: Discussion-Based Classrooms by Ann Cook and Phyllis Tashlik

The Teacher’s Guide to Leading Student-Centered Discussions: Talking About Texts in the Classroom by Michael S. Hale and Elizabeth A. City

What’s the Point in Discussion? by Donald A. Bligh

Pick an activity or skill, like learning to garden, baking, cooking, or learning to program. While one could read books, explore online forums for tips or even take courses, these skills and others like them are more fully grasped when they are engaged in actively. Learning in the classroom can be treated in the same manner and pedagogical techniques like flipped classrooms and active learning exercises have proven to be extremely powerful ways of engaging students, increasing understanding, and raising test scores. An article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) published in June 2014 by Freeman et al. showed that classes where active learning was used enjoyed higher examination scores and lower drop rates compared to traditional all lecture courses.

Various active learning techniques have been covered broadly at a number of Kaneb workshops and in previous blog posts (see Keeping Students Engaged, Effective Lecture Strategies, Active Learning). However these offerings tended to be focused on smaller classroom sizes which are a different environment when compared to a large introductory science course. This offering will instead be focusing on which techniques can work in these larger classes and is presented as a companion to Mark Caprio’s recent Kaneb workshop (Improving Teaching and Learning One Step at a Time).

As a refresher, let’s look at two common active learning techniques and what they entail. We will then look at what variations might make them more effective for a larger STEM class.



  • This activity often begins by posing a non-trivial question (calculation) or offering a discussion topic to the class. First give students 1-2 minutes to work or think on the question individually. Then have students pair (or group) up and continue solving and refining their answer. Finally, after another minute or two, have the students share their answers with the class.

Polling/Clicker Questions:

  • The general idea of this activity is to get rapid feedback from potentially the entire class. A problem (often multiple choice) is posed or displayed on the board. The students then have a short time to solve the problem and submit their answers. This can be done with minimal technology by using colored/labeled index cards. However, the near ubiquity of cellphones does allow you to make use of websites like polleverywhere.com and tophat.com to quickly get useful comparisons and statistics.


TPST (Think-Pair-Share-Turn in):

  • One of the difficulties of TPS in a large class is ensuring that the majority of students are participating. In a small class, it would be possible for everyone to share, and even in a medium sized class a simple random selection approach would keep the students on their toes and actively engaged. However, the suggested variation for the larger classes is that the ‘think-pair’ activity should result in a short assignment that would be collected at the end of the class and graded, either for simple completeness or accuracy. Depending on grading support and time constraints, this approach could involve randomness on whether the assignment is collected or not. One specific example that could work well for this activity would be a “one-minute paper”, where the prompt asks students to express their understanding of a recently covered concept. This is an exceptionally useful activity when introducing a difficult idea since it can act as a measure of comprehension.


  • This technique is one of the easiest to scale up to a large classroom since the time for the activity does not scale with number of students. The polling could even be used as a conclusion with the thinking and pairing already mentioned where the time-consuming sharing is replaced by the polling. Depending on the specific implementation answers can be kept anonymous, or they can be linked with students so that grades can be assigned. The Kaneb Center offers workshops that go in more depth with how to use these and other technologies (Tech Tools for Teaching, Teaching Well Using Technology).


Ensuring that active learning techniques are helpful in larger classes is a difficult proposition and one that will likely be met with initial push-back by the students. However, once inertia is overcome and momentum is built up, and both the instructor and students are more comfortable moving away from the traditional passive lecture format, the benefits of active learning will be reaped.


References & Useful Links

Scott Freeman, Sarah L. Eddy, Miles McDonough, Michelle K. Smith, Nnadozie Okoroafor, Hannah Jordt, and Mary Pat Wenderoth, Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics PNAS 2014 111 (23) 84108415; doi:10.1073/pnas.1319030111

Article and Handouts on Active Learning


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There are many exciting ways to conduct our classes that veer away from the traditional lecture format and enhance students’ learning experiences. Some of these include flipped classrooms, active learning activities, and using technology in the classroom. It might feel intimidating to try something new when we are so used to the traditional lecture method, but there is good news! There are steps we can take to making sure new activities run smoothly.

Before incorporating new teaching methods into your course, do the following:

  • Consider your course learning goals. It can be tempting to try something new and exciting, especially if it’s something that has been implemented successfully in another course, but always make sure everything ties back to your learning goals. First ask yourself, will this work towards my course learning goals? Is anything extraneous? Only incorporate new activities that will help facilitate learning towards the desired course outcomes.
  • Do your research. Does the research support your new idea? Has this been done before? There is a wide variety of pedagogical research available. Check out the Kaneb library for many resources on teaching and pedagogy.
  • Discuss new ideas with a colleague.  Run your ideas by a teaching mentor or colleague. Perhaps they’ve done something similar in the past, and you can learn from their experiences. You can also schedule an individual consultation in the Kaneb Center.
  • Stick with the syllabus. Try not to make any major changes to your course design mid-semester. Remember that your syllabus is a contract with your students, and you don’t want to stray too much. If you have a great idea that doesn’t fit into your current syllabus, flesh it out this semester, and work it into a future class.
  • Do a test run. Make sure you’ve planned everything out, and do a practice run on your own first. Try and anticipate any issues ahead of time, so you can resolve them before implemented the new strategy in your class.

We hope these tips help when you are trying something new in the classroom. Afterwards, make sure you take time to reflect on how it went. Share your successes below!

Nearly everyone who has taught a college course is familiar with the significance of student teaching evaluations. They are an important component of job applications, promotion and tenure portfolios, and the self-efficacy of many professors. While these evaluations receive a great deal of attention and are certainly a key measure of teaching effectiveness, a second (and often overlooked) form of evaluation is crucial for success in the classroom: self-evaluations. By taking time to reflect and evaluate how our own goals are being achieved throughout the semester, we can identify strengths or areas for improvement early on, find ways to be creative in the classroom, and ultimately provide the best possible learning experience for our students. There are other tangible benefits for the teacher too. Self-evaluations may help us detect ways we can save time and energy in our teaching, form the basis of a teaching philosophy, and even raise the scores of student evaluations at the end of the semester. Here are a few tips for how to evaluate your own teaching:

  1. Return to the learning goals you established at the beginning of the semester. What progress have your students made in achieving these goals? How have they demonstrated this progress during class or through assigned work? In your upcoming classes, determine at least one thing you can do to help your students meet the goals you have for them. (For more on how to use learning goals, see this past blog post.)
  2. Reflect on your teaching while it is fresh in your mind. After each class, ask yourself: what is one component of the class that worked really well? What is one aspect that did not work as well as you had hoped? Be sure to write down these reflections for the next time you teach the class.
  3. Evaluate your teaching methods by reviewing current research on teaching pedagogy. Consider trying a new method in an upcoming class and comparing it to your previous method of teaching that particular subject. Even well-designed courses can benefit from updating and finessing.
  4. Design and administer mid-semester student evaluations. Fill the evaluation out for yourself and write brief comments on why you answered the way you did.
  5. Contact the Kaneb Center to arrange an individual consultation or a collaborative teaching reflection. These are excellent opportunities to enhance your teaching by assessing your strengths and areas for improvement.

Self-evaluations, if utilized throughout the semester, allow us to make adjustments to better serve our students and to make our teaching more effective and enjoyable. For additional resources on self-evaluations of teaching, check out:

Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher by Stephen Brookfield
Am I Teaching Well? Self-Evaluation Strategies for Effective Teachers by Vesna Nikolic and Hanna Cabaj
“Evaluating Your Own Teaching” by L. Dee Fink

Happy Spring Break!  Are you looking for some great readings on teaching and learning to enrich your break?  Then look no further than the Kaneb Center’s library!  Here are some of our favorites that we think you may enjoy as well:

Wishing you a restful and productive break!

Kaneb Center for Teaching and Learning

A Selection of Education Research

Teaching is tough. The students change every semester along with the field and while you are filled with ideas to improve or update a class, you are unsure if the time invested is worth it. There are never enough hours in a day and it can be easy to fall back on a previous year’s assignments instead of innovating and incorporating recent research and current events. In what follows is a brief glance at two recent teaching articles covering two very different topics that may help spark some creativity in your approach to teaching and mentoring.


The Role of Emotional Competencies in Faculty-Doctoral Student Relationships
Kerry Ann O’Meara, Katrina Knudsen, and Jill Jones

Using categories from the framework developed for emotional intelligence (see Emotional Intelligence) at the 1998 Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations meeting, O’Meara, Knudsen, and Jones examine the faculty-doctoral student relationship and the role that emotional competencies play in this connection. Specifically they interviewed 11 faculty members and 10 graduate students (all volunteers for the study) in an Anthropology department at an undisclosed university. The interviews were semi-structured and were used to probe the various personal competency areas displayed by the faculty members and graduate students and they specifically focused on:

  • Self-awareness: emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment, and self-confidence
  • Self-regulation: self-control, trustworthiness, and adaptability
  • Self-motivation: achievement drive, commitment, and initiative
  • Social awareness: empathy, service orientation, developing others, leveraging diversity, and political awareness
  • Social skills: influence, communication, leadership, conflict management, building bonds, collaboration and cooperation

They found that the faculty members tended to display much higher levels of social awareness and skills when compared to the graduate students but that both groups displayed similar levels of self-awareness, regulation, and motivation. The researchers concluded their article suggesting that any future work may benefit by focusing on how to increase the doctoral student’s social competencies.


The Impact of Grading on the Curve: A Simulation Analysis
George Kulick and Ronald Wright

Using Monte Carlo (see Monte Carlo) techniques Kulick and Wright construct a number of testing scenarios to examine how ‘grading on the curve’ can lead to unexpected results. Kulick and Wright identify that the testing scenarios that would most likely lead to this situation are those when the distribution of the class is far from a standard normal distribution centered around a C, i.e. “…situations in which all students are highly qualified and well prepared”. They further establish their simulation methodology by setting up fictitious tests that would only include a portion of the material covered in a course, since that is a real-world reflection and a consequence of limited testing times. They then created different distributions of students centered on various “ability” levels. Each “student” would take the test and using the Monte Carlo method would have some probability of answering questions correctly or incorrectly based on their assigned ability. The higher the ability, the more likely they would answer the question correctly. Final scores would be correlated against assigned ability and while in a normally distributed class there was a strong correlation. In some of their testing scenarios, there was no correlation between ability and score. They establish that this is a simple examination of the situation and suggest that more in-depth analysis could take place and would possibly change the results, but they are confident that within their assumptions they have identified a problem with grading on the curve.

Planning ahead

If reading and discussing current research topics in higher education is interesting to you and you would want to join an education literature club that the Kaneb Center is considering starting this summer, please leave a post or send an email to jmichalk @ nd.edu or kaneb @ nd.edu so that the interest level can be judged.



O’Meara, Kerry Ann, Knudsen Katrina, and Jones, Jill (2013). “The Role of Emotional Competencies in Faculty-Doctoral Student Relationships,” The Review of Higher Education: Vol. 36: No. 3, pp 315-347

Kulick, George and Wright, Ronald (2008) “The Impact of Grading on the Curve: A Simulation Analysis,” International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Vol. 2: No. 2, Article 5.



The following entry from the 2014-2015 Teaching Issues Writing Consortium: Teaching Tips was contributed by Rachel Winter, Eastern Kentucky University

“Lecturing to 15 students is much the same as lecturing to 90”

(Dr. A, Professor of Biology, personal communication, 20 March 2014).

The above quote was remarked by Dr. A during a classroom observation of his course applying Flipped Classroom strategies, which utilize the higher levels of Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy during course meetings. While a class of 15 students is arguably more amenable to the construction and maintenance of student-instructor relationships than a 90 member course, the lecture method precludes the advancement of this rapport. One of the most instrumental components of enabling active learning is the establishment of a relationship between an instructor and his or her students, an achievement much more easily realized through effective use of the classroom space.

There are four differently defined spaces in the contemporary classroom: Authoritative, Supervisory, Surveillance, and Interactional. The Authoritative Space refers to the position (generally located at the front center of the classroom) from which the instructor conducts formal teaching and facilitates student activity. This space is also the furthest from students, which is one of the primary hindrances to student-instructor interaction (Lim, O’Halloran, & Podlosov, 2010). The Authoritative Space is typically utilized for the dissemination of information via lecture, an activity that fails to stimulate the higher cognitive levels of analysis, evaluation, and creation, while also preventing students from establishing a personal connection with their instructor.

When departing from the Authoritative Space, an instructor may choose to “patrol” the space between and around the class members, observing, but not interacting with, student activity. When the instructor “pace[s] alongside the rows of students’ desks as well as up and down the side of the classroom,” this activity transforms these sites into the Supervisory Space (Lim, O’Halloran, & Podlosov, 2010, p. 238). While the Supervisory Space physically locates instructors nearer students, the purely observational function of this space does not facilitate the construction and maintenance of student-instructor relationships.

Within the Supervisory Space is the Surveillance Space. This space serves roughly the same function as the Supervisory Space, but involves stationary observation. Similar to Foucault’s Panopticon, the utilization of this space involves the implicit assertion of authority over the observed individuals through an “all-seeing” monitor, in this case positioned at the rear of the classroom (Lim, O’Halloran, & Podlosov, 2010). The function of this space unfortunately precludes the development of a community of peers, as instructors constantly exercise their authority over the members of their class rather than actively facilitating interactions within and among student groups.

The most helpful for the purposes of establishing instructor-student rapport is the Interactional Space. This space can be utilized by the stationary positioning of the instructor “alongside the students’ desks or between the rows of students’ desks” (Lim, O’Halloran, & Podlosov, 2010, p. 238). Interactional Space is most commonly used during student activities, whether individually or in groups. This space represents the closest proximity between instructor and students and “facilitates interaction and reduces interpersonal distance” (Lim, O’Halloran, & Podlosov, 2010, p. 238). This interaction may include personal consultation regarding classroom topics, clarification of previously disseminated material, or even personal interaction, developing student-instructor rapport.

In order to effectively engage students in their learning processes, instructors must take care to utilize their classroom space to enhance student-instructor rapport. An awareness of one’s activity in the classroom can contribute to an enhanced learning environment and can mean the difference between reserved, withdrawn students, and students who actively apply material and participate in a community of peers. When determining the most beneficial use of one’s classroom space, instructors must consider the impact of their use of physical space on the interpersonal distance between students and instructor.



Berrett, D. (2012). How ‘flipping’ the classroom can improve the traditional lecture. Education Digest, 78(1), 36-41.

Lim, F. V., O’Halloran, K. L., & Podlasov, A. A. (2012). Spatial pedagogy: mapping meanings in the use of classroom space. Cambridge Journal of Education, 42(2), 235-251. doi:10.1080/0305764X.2012.676629


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