Student Spotlight: Lynne Bauman and Emma Fleming

Posted on December 15, 2014 in Students by JACF

The Nanovic Institute is committed to the Catholic mission of the University of Notre Dame. Thus, we were happy to provide grant funding for two students to travel to the House of Brigid in Wexford and Dublin to do discernment work. Lynne Bauman (’15) is double-majoring in Psychology and Arts & Letters Pre-Health. Emma Fleming (’16) is double-majoring in English and Spanish. Both of these young women are discerning a call to a year or two of post-graduation service, and are seriously considering House of Brigid as a possibility. A trip to visit, they thought, would significantly help their discernment process. Both of them sent us reports of their experience.

Bauman, Lynne 14-15

Lynne Bauman with the House of Brigid quilt hanging in the day chapel in the Church of the Annunciation in Wexford.

Lynne Bauman: Over fall break of this semester, I was fortunate enough to travel to visit the House of Brigid (Teach Bhríde in Irish), a small lay community that serves the Catholic Church in Ireland. As a senior who is planning on doing a year or two of postgraduate service, I wanted to visit this program and witness their work in an effort to discover whether this would be a place I could see myself living and working next year. My discernment process was greatly aided by the opportunity to experience a week with House of Brigid and share in their presence and community.

I arrived in Dublin on Saturday morning and took a bus to Wexford. Upon arrival, I was greeted by the House of Brigid members and visited the Clonard Church of the Annunciation, the parish they serve. That afternoon was the 40th anniversary of the parish, and I sang in the choir for mass! It was invaluable to experience such an important celebration and see the parish come together. I met and talked with many of the parishioners and fellow choir members. I saw how the community members are truly friends with so many of the people there, and I gathered a sense of the House of Brigid’s presence and significance to the parish.

I attended daily mass and had the opportunity to ask each community member about his or her discernment process and experience thus far. These conversations, even if only a few minutes long, helped me gain insight into why they applied for this program. They also encouraged me to search for what motivations and goals I had for my own year of service, even if I do not end up applying for House of Brigid. I also explored the town of Wexford, which has so many intricate little stores and shops, delicious restaurants, and stunning views of the coast. I think this was important to see, since I would not be working in the parish every hour of every day. Walking around the town helped me get a sense of the pace of life in Ireland and envision myself actually living here.

Tuesday night I left Wexford to visit the other, newly founded House of Brigid in Dublin, Ireland. Tuesday night, the community was in charge of a mass for the Notre Dame study abroad students at the O’Connell House, and I sang in the choir for that mass as well. It was, again, a wonderful chance to participate in the ministry and share in the everyday life of the community members. It was particularly interesting to compare the work of the Dublin House to the Wexford House. The Dublin program is more a Campus Ministry/peer ministry program for the study abroad students; however, they are also involved with Harold’s Cross Church and spend 2 or 3 days a week singing in the choirs and teaching faith formation classes in a school. Visiting the school was one of my favorite parts of the week! Meeting the Irish children and hearing their questions about mass got me very excited about the possibility of working here next year.

The research I conducted in Wexford and Dublin was tremendously helpful to my discernment process. The opportunity to visit this service program, to participate in their ministry, and to talk with members has given me a much clearer understanding of what a year of service with the House of Brigid involves. I am most grateful for the concrete experiences that I now have to reflect upon as I explore my path for next year. 

Emma Fleming  in the O'Connell House Chapel in Dublin.

Emma Fleming in the O’Connell House Chapel in Dublin.

Emma Fleming: Through the Nanovic Institute, I was able to understand more fully the ministry of the House of Brigid in Wexford and Dublin, Ireland. Before the trip, I knew I was passionate about music ministry, yet I was hesitant to include it in my future. This week, made possible by the grant program, provided me with clarity and grace. The moment Lynne, a fellow grant recipient, and I left the bus in Wexford we received profound Irish hospitality. Everyone we met wanted to know how we were feeling and how he or she could make us feel at home. When we weren’t greeted with a hug, we received a cup of tea and wonderful conversation. The entire week was filled with this sense of community and love amidst lots of singing and organizing.

In Wexford, the main ministry was stationed at the Clonard Parish. I had seen so many pictures of the chapel and main altar that it seemed like a dream once I was there. God truly was present in my hours at Mass, singing in the choir, and at adoration. It was amazing to see how at home I could feel in such a new place thousands of miles away from the United States. During my days in Wexford, Lynne and I got to have meetings with different parishioners and church workers, sing in choirs directed by the members of the House of Brigid, meet the Papal Nuncio at a 40th Parish Anniversary Mass, and spend time with the community members.

For me, the most important part was the time with the community members. It was so interesting to hear what brought them to this program and the challenges and blessings they have encountered. It was helpful to also see the aspect of “living in community” in action—with all the positives and negatives that come along with that. It is an aspect that I did not believe would affect me as much as it did. The dynamic of both communities reflected the family God calls us to share. They love each other demanding them to challenge, care for, and respect one another and lead their lives as servants to each other and the parish. It was truly amazing to witness how well they have been received into their parishes, as well, as their gifts for music and fellowship have been honored so well.

In Dublin, I was so lucky to get time in the O’Connell House—shadowing the community members as they worked with Campus Ministry to provide spiritual guidance to abroad students and the ACE program, among other demands. As the first two members of the House of Brigid in Dublin, they both demonstrated an extremely powerful sense of motivation and persistence, tackling the unknown within the early stages of the program. As pioneers, they must remain patient, knowing that only time will create trusting, lasting relationships that lead to more leadership within parishes, schools, and the O’Connell House that they minister to. I learned a lot from the members in Dublin, as they embodied servant leadership.

When looking into the future, one year of service is relatively short. Therefore, it was extremely important to have this time to determine if I felt at home in the program. I am so happy to say that I definitely think it is a match and I cannot wait to apply next winter. I am extremely grateful to the Nanovic Institute for making it all possible. 

Student Spotlight: Molly Geraghty

Posted on December 9, 2014 in Students by JACF

Geraghty, Molly 14-15When planning a research trip, it is always best to plan carefully in order to assure that you can actually accomplish that which you set out to do. When we review student grant proposals, we look for well-planned and well-defined trips. But you know what Robert Burns had to say about plans: “The best laid schemes o’ mice an’ men / Gang aft agley” (tranlated from Scots as “The best laid plans of mice and men often go awry”). Undergraduate Molly Geraghty (’15) learned this well on her Nanovic-funded fall-break trip. Geraghty, a double-major in Science Pre-Professional Studies and French and Francophone Studies, arrived in Paris only to have her research plan derailed by an unexpected and unpublished construction project. She quickly adapted her plan, however, and spent her week in Paris doing excellent work! Read about her experience in her own words.

In writing my grant proposal for the Senior Fall Break Travel and Research Grant, I had prepared an agenda so I could get right to work on my first day in Paris. In doing so, I had looked up specific resources in the history library of Paris, the Bibliothèque Historique de la Ville de Paris (BHVP), where I planned on doing most of my research. However, Paris had different plans for my traveling companion and myself. Upon arriving at the BHVP, we found that it would be closed throughout the week for construction and repair, despite this notice not being listed on any websites relating to or linked with the BHVP, including those of the French government and the national library system. Instead of seeing this as a defeat, we chose to view it as an opportunity to explore other resources. I incorporated firsthand experiences, such as a tour of the Opéra Bastille and visiting the specialized library-museum of the national opera of France, the Bibliothèque-Musée de l’Opéra. As a result of this small roadblock, we were able to discover one of the most exciting truths about research: it is always changing, and researchers must constantly adapt to keep up with it as they find new resources and discover new ideas. The resources I found and used at the National Library of France, the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (BNF), led me down roads of discovery that I never would have come across if the BHVP hadn’t been closed. As an added bonus, I got to work inside the Opera Garnier itself, the illustrious edifice that served as a setting for the events in the Phantom of the Opera, the story that inspired my original research!

I found many stories in the library about people like myself who were faced with difficult circumstances and, in enduring their conditions, demonstrated the resiliency of the human spirit. Both the opera performers and the audience members had to adapt in order to endure the riotous and revolutionary atmosphere of the French Revolution. The research I did in Paris over fall break 2014 was a continuation of the trail of discoveries I began a year earlier during fall break of 2013, through another Travel and Research grant from the Nanovic Institute. Previously, I had studied two specific incidences of audience interaction at the Opera: the modern film adaptation of the fictional story of the Phantom of the Opera and the failed premiere of Richard Wagner’s opera Tannhaeuser at the National Opera of Paris in 1861. I had learned during my last visit to the Paris libraries that these incidences of audience interaction at the Paris Opera were not accidental coincidences but rather two instances of a greater historical trend. It seemed that the opera was used as a stage by far more than just the performers. This time around, I thought it would be interesting to expand my search and explore this tradition of audience interaction during revolutionary times, when the atmosphere of rebellion and independence would only support and encourage uprisings at the opera.

As it turned out, history can be just as entertaining as fiction. In one book at the BnF, I happened upon the record of an opera performance where the audience became so raucous that the opera house brought down the curtains to protect the performers and allow the excitement to fizzle out. Not content with being silenced, the members of the audience who were seated in the parterre area leapt onto the stage and proceeded to cut down the curtain with knives, swords and whatever other sharp objects they could get their hands on. Another source recounted the many times the opera was interrupted so that the performers could lead the opera house in rounds of revolutionary songs and speeches, at the request of certain enthusiastic and insistent to the point of threatening members of the audience. Another time, a few members of the Jacobin party almost succeeded in killing an actress after she openly displayed her loyalty to the Queen during a performance. These stories made the violent and drastic actions of the phantom in the Phantom of the Opera, my original inspiration for research, very reasonable and unsurprising! The BnF was a great place to work—the charged silence seemed to be filled with the thoughts, ideas and discoveries of those working there. However, the silent atmosphere proved to be challenging to maintain at times, as I suppressed giggles about some of the ridiculous antics and incredible occurrences that had taken place at the Paris Opera house!

My time in Paris showed me the dynamic nature of research, and the new discoveries that can come from adapting to a change in a plans or a difficult situation. I learned more about the topic of audience interaction, which I am currently developing into a thesis with the help of my research mentor, Professor Julia Douthwaite, and found some interesting stories that served as both support for my thesis and entertainment to help the long hours spent at the library pass by quickly. People have a remarkable ability to adapt in order to survive tough circumstances, and my time in Paris over fall break exploring the active role of the audience in the Paris Opera through times of struggle and oppression allowed me to both learn about that and experience it firsthand!

Student Spotlight: Shanna Corner

Posted on December 8, 2014 in Students by JACF

Corner, Shanna 14-15Here at the Nanovic Institute, we receive a lot of grant applications from graduate students studying English, literature, history, and philosophy. But sociology? Not so much. Thus, we’re thrilled to spotlight Shanna Corner, a PhD candidate in sociology. Shanna received a Graduate Break Travel and Research Grant to travel to one of the United Nations’ Convention on the Elimination of Descirimination Against Women committee’s tri-annual sessions. The work that she’s done on human rights is truly impressive. She recently sent us an account of her experience in Switzerland.

The Graduate Break Research and Travel Grant that I received this semester from the Nanovic Institute for European Studies facilitated my travel to Geneva, Switzerland. While there, I spent two weeks attending the public meetings of the most recent session of a UN human rights treaty body that I have been studying for the last several years as a graduate student. Learning more about the nature of these meetings and observing the reporting that was taking place enabled me to develop an expanded understanding of the dynamics involved in these types of sessions and the role that they play, which I could not have gained without actually being at these events themselves.

After spending so much time analyzing materials related to this area and contemplating theorization about the human rights system and the construction and promotion of particular human rights norms, it was extremely gratifying to be able to actually see the nature of these meetings in person. Having the ability to attend multiple days of meetings, during which the delegations of several different countries presented their country reports, also allowed me to gain more knowledge of similarities and differences across these states. Given the variation in the characteristics of these countries, I was able to deepen my knowledge of the European countries involved in this session and how they were similar and different from both each other and the wider range of countries that were involved in reporting.

I am working to become a scholar who studies the human rights system, so having the opportunity to actually go to the location where these events that I am studying are taking place and gain this kind of firsthand knowledge was a vital educational experience for me. This strengthened and expanded knowledge will allow me to produce stronger analysis and arguments in the future, and will also help to increase my credibility as a person working in this subject area. 

I am very grateful to the Nanovic Institute for providing me with funding that has allowed me to attend this session. Without this funding it would have been very difficult for me to make this trip. Given the time-sensitive nature of my work toward my dissertation completion and my need to gain access to events like this session at the United Nations as they happen, it is incredibly helpful to have access to such generous funding. The need to learn more about the characteristics of European countries in their approaches to specific human rights, as well as how they influence, overlap with, and are impacted by larger global cultural norms related to this area, is vital. I am deeply grateful to the Nanovic Institute for providing me with the chance to actually play a role in conducting on-the-ground research that opens up knowledge about these issues. The research that I was able to conduct during this trip has helped me to hone my project design. In addition, it will play a critical role in contextualizing and grounding the remainder of my work in completing my dissertation.

Student Spotlight: Brenna Gautam

Posted on December 5, 2014 in Students by JACF

Gautam, Brenna 14-15How many students can say that they traveled to Serbia over their break? Brenna Gautam can! Brenna is a Senior majoring in History and Peace Studies. We awarded her a Senior Travel and Research Grant to conduct independent research on the Belgrade student protest of 1968. Here is what she has to say about her experience.

I left for Belgrade, Serbia in mid-October with very specific research questions in mind; as a first-semester senior, I was steeped in the initial stages of writing a History thesis on questions of identity and the concept of protest in the former Yugoslavia. I suppose that I also left with a specific set of expected answers in mind; I have researched in the Balkans before, and thought I had an understanding of how deeply ingrained ethnic identities in that region are. I had scheduled museum visits, had set up interviews with historians and curators, and felt completely prepared in facing the week of thesis research that the Nanovic Institute had generously funded. 

Yet for all these preconceived hypotheses and preparatory actions, the results of my research in Belgrade still surprised me.  

My research brought me first to the Museum of Yugoslav History, where I learned from both the documents exhibited and from the documents that weren’t exhibited. From the documents on display, I gleaned an understanding of Tito’s relationship to Yugoslav youth during the year 1968. I was able to view and analyze photographs of Tito surrounding himself with youth worker action members in the 1960s, display cases of the batons passed during Tito’s 1968 annual Youth Relay, and transcripts of speeches that Tito had delivered to the youth on his birthday. Interviews with a curator and with a museum staff person, however, introduced me to concepts that weren’t reflected in the exhibits: the lessons of missing history.

“Yugo-nostalgia” was a term often used in these interviews to describe the way the museum was organized around the memory of Tito. According to the interviewees, many Serbians are Yugo-nostalgic: they view the period of Tito as one of economic prosperity, relative ethnic peace, and good international standing. When I asked how the student protest of 1968 fit into this narrative, the answers were blunt: they don’t. And that is why, in the entire exhibit featuring youth and Tito, the youth protest against Tito is entirely left out. For more information on the protest, I was directed to the Belgrade City Museum and the University of Belgrade Library.

At the Belgrade City Museum, I found an entirely different set of a documents telling an entirely different narrative. Images from the marches and demonstrations, signs carried by picketers, and examples of street theater tactics employed by the youth were proudly displayed here. If the Museum of Yugoslav History was “Yugo-nostalgic,” then the interviews at the Belgrade City Museum were “Youth-nostalgic.” Historians here spoke lovingly of the students of 1968, of their passion and bravery, of their radical nature and progressive ideals. Many called 1968 a “romantic” year, acknowledging that a sense of global spirit connected and energized the youth in Belgrade. Here, I was able to learn more about the protest itself and was able to draw conclusions about the way in which the protest was situated within the broader context of 1968. Furthermore, I found an unexpected observation in my research: a contrast between the way 1968 protestors are remembered in Serbia today. On one hand, they are viewed as subversives to the ideal figure of Tito, and are cast aside from history (as in the Museum of Yugoslav History). On the other, they are viewed as modern, romantic, and innocent youth and are placed within the history of 1968.

While on my research trip, I also had the opportunity to visit the University of Belgrade Library, where librarians assisted me in locating documents on the 1968 student protest. These memoirs, which have since been translated into English by Milos Damjanovic, have given me a fuller understanding of the events of June 1968 as they were realized from a participant. Mr. Damjanovic, who works at the Institute for Social Sciences in Belgrade, also gave me insight into why the youth of 1968 were the first to participate in globalized protest: he pointed to television and radio as the answer. This was the first generation in the Balkans that had grown up with television and radio, and were thus connected to the world around them.

Overall, I left Belgrade with a host of primary source material (photographs from museum exhibits, personal interview transcripts, and almost half a notebook filled with observations from my museum and library visit). But while these tangible resources will allow me to construct the bulk of my historical thesis, the intangible gains from this trip will color it in personal ways: being able to actually stand in the Studenski Trg square, the square where protestors gathered and were subsequently fired upon by police in 1968, is one example of the experiences that will allow me to write on the 1968 protest with sincerity. 

Student Spotlight: Lorenzo Dell’Oso

Posted on December 4, 2014 in Students by JACF

Dell'oso, Lorenzo 14-15 (2)At the Nanovic Institute, we know that networking is vital for graduate students who will one day be applying for jobs or for further graduate studies, and we’re proud of the fact that we help ambitious graduate students make vital connections. Lorenzo Dell’Oso is a good example of this. We awarded Lorenzo, who is working on a Master of Arts in Italian Studies, a Graduate Professional Development Grant to present his research at a conference in Lucca, Italy. Here is what he has to say about his experience.

On October 17-18, 2014, I attended a conference about the famous book dealer Giuseppe Martini (1870-1944), “Da Lucca a New York a Lugano. Giuseppe Martini libraio tra Otto e Novecento” (“From Lucca to New York: the librarian Giuseppe Martini between Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries”), held in Lucca’s Biblioteca Statale (Italy).

My research interest is the interconnection between Early Modern Italian Culture and Print History. This interest is closely related to a discovery I made in September 2013. In the Rare Books Special Collection of Hesburgh Library, in fact, I found several unpublished poems and prose texts, in Italian and Latin, in cod. lat. d. 5. Soon I published a short article on this manuscript in the Italian journal Studi di filologia italiana, and the American journal Textual Cultures has expressed interest in receiving the full edition of the texts. Among the texts in the codex lat. d. 5, I found three unknown vernacular compositions (two prose texts and a “terza rima” poem) against print culture, which I was able to attribute to the humanist and Dominican friar Filippo da Strada (ca. 1450-1505). In December 2014, an article on the topic will come out in the international journal of printed texts Tipofilologia. These vernacular compositions will also be the subject of my Master’s thesis, directed by Prof. C. Moevs, in collaboration with Prof. Ted Cachey. My analysis starts off with philological and material data (transcription and edition of the texts) and only then moves to propose an interpretative reading of the pedagogic role that manuscript texts claimed for themselves (in comparison with and contrast to printed ones) in Early Modern Italian Culture. Since Giuseppe Martini himself owned several manuscripts by Filippo da Strada, it was essential for me to attend this conference and listen to papers about several aspects of Martini’s cultural activity: among these, for instance, I realized that other important manuscripts (which I didn’t know before) were written by Filippo.

In Lucca I had the opportunity to present my research in front of a few of the best Book History scholars. Among these, in particular, I met scholars such as William Stoneman and Edoardo Barbieri. The first one, who is librarian at Harvard University and one of the most important book historians, congratulated me for my work and further discussed the topic of my paper with me. The second one, Professor Edoardo Barbieri (Catholic University of Milan), already had helped me in my research on Filippo. After meeting each other and talking about future research, he even offered me to collaborate on the International peer-reviewd journal La Bibliofilia – which he directs – by writing a few book reviews of most important American books in Book History. Besides Stoneman and Barbieri, I met great international scholars in the field of Book History, such as Piero Scapecchi, Marco Paoli and Klaus Kempf. They all gave me very useful suggestions also about my future studies, like suggesting a few places to apply for a PhD in this field of study. Furthermore, for me it was great to be updated about the most current scholarly developments of book history in Renaissance Italy. Therefore, these two days have definitely influenced my future as a scholar and researcher. Thank you so much, Nanovic Institute!

Student Spotlight: Jingting “Lily” Kang

Posted on December 2, 2014 in Students by JACF

Kang, Lily 14-15We’re so proud of our fall break grant recipients, we just can’t wait to feature another! Jingting “Lily” Kang is a Junior majoring in Information Technology Management and minoring in Actuarial Science. She wrote such a focused and thorough grant proposal, we couldn’t help but award her a grant to travel to Switzerland over fall break. Her purpose: to conduct a pilot study addressing how to encourage and develop entrepeneurship and innovation, and how to integrate insights from Swiss entrpreneurs into the educational experience of Notre Dame students. Upon her return, Lily sent us an account of her experience.

“I didn’t learn 90% of what I am doing now from my classes in college,” said Sunnie Tolle, a 28-year-old successful Swiss entrepreneur. As the conversation went on, I learned about some of the key experiences in her life that contributed to her skill set, passion, and character. These experiences include participating in the apprenticeship system when she was a teenager, starting a club dedicated to creative projects during college, and going to social and networking events where she connected with many entrepreneurs who would influence her life.

The research question for my pilot study was: Besides institutionalized education, what experiences are necessary for someone to have an entrepreneurial mindset, acquire innovative capabilities, and carry out successful ventures? Comparing over 20 narratives from entrepreneurs in Switzerland this past fall break, I have found that Sunnie’s learning experience, or lack thereof, is not unique. In fact, many entrepreneurs in Switzerland share similar paths in becoming entrepreneurial and acquiring innovative skills. Drawing similarities from their narratives on their learning experiences, the research has produced these three findings: 1) Students’ fear for failure can be best reduced through exposure to hands-on practice at an early age; 2) an effective way to nourish college students’ interests in entrepreneurship is through face-to-face engagement with seasoned entrepreneurs; 3) extracurricular activities that develop students’ team working, critical thinking, and leadership skills are key to entrepreneurs’ future success. 

My research contributes to the ongoing conversation about how we can re-imagine education strategies and develop a more effective approach to cultivate the next generation of entrepreneurs in the U.S as well as specifically at Notre Dame. My seven-day field research in Switzerland allowed me to build strong connections with people and organizations in the entrepreneurship world. I am planning on carry out a full-scale research project on a more focused and narrowed topic this winter break, hoping to formulate my senior thesis as a result of the experience.

Kang, Lily 14-15 (2)My main research methods were interviews and participant observation. Not only did I grow intellectually as a result of my field research, but I have also gained tremendous personal growth from this research experience. Conducting interviews with total strangers in a foreign country that I had never been to was not a simple task. It took both courage and caution to reach my goals effectively. For one thing, one has to be confident and courageous when going about interviewing people and delving deep into the research questions over a conversation. For another thing, it is important to stay cautious about cultural norms and be aware and sensitive of people who have different cultural backgrounds. The balance between the two can be sometimes hard. However, the exposure to a different society, culture, and environment through the people of Switzerland has allowed me to gain cross-cultural competence, confidence, and interpersonal skills. These are extremely valuable qualities to have for someone like me who is going to pursue a career in entrepreneurship. Coming back from Switzerland, I feel that I am more capable of connecting effectively with others. My enhanced interpersonal skills have been one of the lasting and valuable effect my research in Switzerland has had on me.

In additional to intellectual growth and academic development, my research in Switzerland has led to new perspective and insights that have been key to the growth of my leadership skills. Learning from established entrepreneurs and attending networking events with entrepreneurs have allowed me to transform my learning into action. For example, I adapted the feedback model from the entrepreneurship student club in Switzerland for my own club related to entrepreneurship.

I am deeply grateful for the guidance and financial support provided by the Nanovic Institute. My research experience in Switzerland was a milestone witnessing the remarkable growth of my intellectual interests on the research topic as well as my growth as a person. Here, I would like to express my sincere thanks to those who have made this opportunity possible. 

Student Spotlight: Courtney Haddick

Posted on December 1, 2014 in Students by JACF

Haddick, Courtney 14-15Courtney Haddick is a senior from the School of Architecture. Courtney has received a number of grants from the Nanovic Institute. Her latest took her to Paris to view archival drawings by Giuseppe Valadier. She recently sent us a number of really great photographs from her trip, along with a description of her work and her experience.

Giuseppe Valadier is one of the most important and influential architects of nineteenth century Rome, and yet documentation on his work is severely lacking. His work was been largely associated with the Napoleonic occupation of Rome from 1809 to 1814.  The Italian distaste for the French occupation has unfortunately led to an overlook of much of Valadier’s work. This research endeavor, with Professor Selena Anders, aims to overcome that.

Valadier’s most famous work is the Piazza del Popolo, located on the Northern end of the historic center of the city. Valadier worked on a multitude of other proposals throughout the city, both on the architectural and urban scales, but many were never built after Napoleon withdrew from Rome in 1814. To date, there has never been compiled a comprehensive plan of the city, incorporating all of these proposals, showing what Rome could have looked like had Napoleon and Valadier succeeded in building them all.

We are currently working towards compiling such a map, work which began last spring in the Roman Archives with the support of the Nanovic Institute. We were able to access many of Valadier’s original drawings, quite a few of which had never been published. We discovered, however, that many of the drawings we needed were in fact located in Paris, where they had been sent back with reports to Napoleon.

The map of Rome (1813) that served as a starting point for Haddick.

The map of Rome (1813) that served as a starting point for Haddick.

The first document I was able to track down was a map of Rome by Pietro Ruga from the year 1813. This map was located in the Biblioteque Nationale de France in the special Maps and Plans collection of the Richelieu Research Library. This map was done in a similar style to the famous plan of Rome from 1748 by Giambattista Nolli. The date of the map lines up perfectly with the period of Napoleonic occupation, and shows us exactly what the state of Rome was at the time we are studying. This map will serve as the base from which our Valadian map will be drawn. The experience of accessing the map was wonderful, as it is located in one of the most beautiful libraries, and the staff was happy to assist in the research. I was also shown how to obtain a higher resolution digitization of the map for our purposes, which is available to the public.

I am now in the process of digitally creating an image with various layers showing the various proposals, what was built, what was proposed for demolition, what buildings were never realized, etc. When complete, the map will include a feature where one can digitally cycle through the various stages of completion to see not only what was built or proposed, but also the progression chronologically. The hope is that the layout will be similar to a map the Notre Dame School of Architecture Library has created of Seaside, Florida, in the Seaside Research Portal, where one can fade through a series of maps showing the evolution of the town.

Many of Valadier’s drawings that I viewed in Paris were quite large and detailed, and the high graphic quality of these drawings lends itself well to the incorporation into the map. I was able to photograph and document the drawings as I located them within the Archives collections. I am now working on inserting them into the 1813 map. Once all of the drawings are stitched together and everything is properly scaled and aligned, I will create one overall drawing with everything shown in one graphic style, with a system of color codes to differentiate layers of the map.

A photo of some of the archival sources with which Haddick worked.

A photo of some of the archival sources with which Haddick worked.

Once the map is compiled, we will coordinate with some of the staff in the Architecture Library to help create an online tool where one can click on each intervention on the map and bring up additional images of the interventions. For proposed interventions, this will include additional drawings from Valadier for the proposal, as well as photographs of the area as it was developed instead. For his works, which were actually realized, this will also include photographs (both historic and contemporary when possible) of the site as it was built and how it has remained or evolved today.  In this way, all of the documentation collected will be available together, and will be organized and accessible through a single graphic–the map.

A secondary endeavor on this trip was working to understand the various parallels between Valadier’s proposals in Rome and Haussmann’s dramatic interventions in Paris done at the same time. Though the cities clearly have different characteristics, there are more similarities than one might expect. Via del Corso in Rome may have existed in part before Napoleon, but the relationship between the Capitoline and Piazza del Popolo that he was altering bear striking resemblances to the Champs Elysees. In fact the layout of the node created at the Arc de Triomphe in Paris is very similar to that of the obelisk and fountain in Piazza del Popolo.

The trajectory of this research will hopefully incorporate more analysis of the relationships between Haussmann’s and Valadier’s urbanism. This may take the form of analytical drawings and sketches, similar to those completed in Paris, or may even be developed to be incorporated into the digital map. The aim is for this map to be fully developed and launched by the end of this academic year.

Student Spotlight: Jacqueline Wilson

Posted on November 24, 2014 in Students by JACF

Wilson, Jacqueline 14-15 (2)Here at the Nanovic Institute, we’ve just started going through the materials sent to us by our fall break grant recipients. What exciting and educational trips they have taken! One of those fall break grant recipients is Jacqueline Wilson. Inspired by current healthcare debates in the US, she traveled to Switzerland to research their consumer-driven healthcare system. When she returned, she sent us a report of her experience:

As healthcare reform continues to be a topic of debate in the United States, we should look to the successful healthcare systems throughout the world for options, alternatives, and answers to our healthcare challenges. One such system is the Swiss consumer-driven healthcare system, which consistently achieves universal coverage, widespread access, lower costs, and excellent quality.Over fall break, I completed research and met with residents throughout Switzerland, with the objective of studying Swiss healthcare and the roles that transparency, culture, and inequality play within this system. Through my interesting research and eventful travels, I learned a great deal about Swiss healthcare and culture. This journey shaped the way I see healthcare, its future in the United States, and the role I hope to one day play in it.

After studying US healthcare policy in Washington DC, I was intrigued by the “consumer-driven” and “market-based” policies that some politicians advocated for (or wanted more of) within the Affordable Care Act. In order to examine a more consumer-driven and market oriented system, I looked to Switzerland. Harvard Business School professor and healthcare expert, Regina Herzlinger, defines consumer-driven healthcare as a system that “combines free demand and supply, transparency, and active government over-sight”. Although the Swiss system is not perfectly consumer driven, as it does place constraints on demand and supply, it is a great example of what market influences can do to control costs, increase efficiency, and improve quality.

By examining the Swiss Federal Law on Healthcare Insurance (LaMal for short), I was able learn a great deal about the Swiss healthcare and insurance systems. In Switzerland, all residents are required to have health insurance. Unlike the US healthcare system, all individuals buy their own insurance from a private insurer, rather than their employer or the government (Medicare, Medicaid) providing the insurance. Insurers must have policies that meet a required set of minimum benefits, and they cannot deny participants for age or pre-existing conditions. If basic plan insurance premiums exceed 8% of personal income, the Swiss government will provide a subsidy. Plans vary by the price of the premium, deductible, and copayment. Besides the basic, compulsory insurance that all residents must buy, they also have the option to buy supplementary insurance that covers more services. This system has led to some of the best healthcare outcomes in the world. They achieve this while keeping healthcare costs much lower than those in the US, 11.0% GDP compared to 17.7% GDP (2011). Overall, Swiss healthcare is characterized by using the private market, encouraging individual responsibility, supporting those in need, and obtaining excellent outcomes.

In order to truly understand the benefits and drawbacks of this system, I had to directly speak to consumers, especially with regards to the roles of transparency, culture, and inequality. As an IT management major, I was especially interested in the online resources consumers have to compare prices, insurers, and providers. After speaking with residents, I learned that there are excellent websites for consumers to compare insurance options (http://en.comparis.ch/, http://www.priminfo.ch/praemien/index.php?sprache=d). However, similar to the US, there are few resources for them to decide what provider (doctor, hospital etc.) has the best outcomes and prices. In order for the Swiss system to be truly consumer-driven, it needs to improve transparency measures and resources for both insurers and providers.

Culture is a very important component to healthcare, so traveling throughout Switzerland and meeting with residents was essential to understanding the different influences within the Swiss system. The consumer-driven healthcare system reflects the independent yet supportive nature of Swiss culture. While speaking with a resident on the plane, she described that Swiss culture places a great deal of emphasis on individual responsibility but still recognizes the importance of social securities and safety nets. This reflects the mandate that residents must buy their own insurance but can also receive subsidies and assistance from the government.

Because health inequality is such an important topic in the United States, I had hoped that Switzerland could provide some insights into dealing with this important social justice topic. As long as healthcare systems allow participants to buy supplementary insurance beyond the minimum, there will be inequalities between those that can afford beyond the compulsory plan and those that cannot. However, because Switzerland has an expansive minimum benefits package, a low rate of poverty, and a good subsidy system, they have not had as many problems with healthcare inequality as the United States. This is also due to excellent quality of public services in Switzerland, in which variables that affect health such as education, housing, and food are much more robust, equal, and efficient.  

Through my travels in Switzerland, I also hoped to analyze the applicability of the Swiss healthcare system in the United States. With the new reforms in the US, Americans without insurance can now buy insurance on exchanges that are very similar to the Swiss healthcare experience. But could this system be applied across all US residents? Because of our similar focus on individualism and individual responsibility, it is culturally feasible. However, many people would not support the inconvenience of losing their current Medicaid, Medicare, or employer based insurance in exchange for a plan they select themselves. Due to our large size and polarized views, I hypothesize that the US will continue to have a “glued-together” system that represents many different types of healthcare systems from across the globe.

My experience in Switzerland was absolutely incredible. I thoroughly enjoyed my time there and met with many great people, from Notre Dame Alumni to Swiss citizens. This trip further solidified my passion for healthcare, specifically when it comes to policy and the implementation of policy. I am thrilled to be able to share these new insights with other Notre Dame students whom I will be leading on the healthcare policy seminar in Washington D.C. next spring. I will forever be grateful for the Nanovic Institute’s generosity and support. 

Gen X and 1989 in Poland

Posted on November 20, 2014 in Events, Partners, Social and Political Geographies by APM

On Tuesday, November 11, 2014, Alicja Kusiak-Brownstein (Visiting Faculty) joined A. James McAdams (Director, Nanovic Institute), David Cortright (Kroc Institute), and Sebastian Rosato (Political Science) for a panel discussion commemorating the fall of the Berlin Wall. Her reflections are reprinted here below.

After being invited to the panel “The Berlin Wall 25 Years On: Its Meaning, Then and Now,” I asked my friends in Poland, who in 1989 were in their late teens and early twenties: how do you remember the fall of the wall?

Though from a far distance, their memories resonate with Prof. A. James McAdams’ observation that the Berlin Wall did not fall so much as it opened. They also embody the point made by Prof. David Cortright that civil society had the leading role in the transformations of the late 1980s. Moreover, those memories, though indirectly, reveal one important quality of the political changes epitomized by the fall of the Berlin Wall: its peacefulness. That quality is too often played down. The fall of the Berlin Wall was certainly a spectacular media event seen around the world. Yet the fall of the wall was just one of a series of events that helped to bring down communism in Eastern Europe over a three-year period. This peaceful dismantling of the communist regimes spared us the trauma caused by military violence, one that could have lasted for generations.

One of my immediate observations, however, was how much the place where one stands defines the point of view, or in other words, how different the fall of the Berlin Wall is remembered by the Poles who at the time lived in the West, and those of us who lived in the East. The West was astounded at the collapse of the wall. Justyna, in 1989 an undergraduate student at University of California in San Diego, said she was astonished to see the reports about the Berlin Wall in the newspapers. “I was very surprised that it is happening now… simply, one beautiful day communism collapsed, and that’s that.” Hania, who worked in a photography studio in Suresne, in the western suburbs of Paris, said she was petrified when she first heard the news. While the French radio constantly played the reports from Berlin, her little shop turned into a discussion club, where clients and employees had heated debates about what that event would bring to Germany, Europe, and the world.

The memories from the Polish side show less surprise. Andrzej’s first thoughts were clear and patriotic: “Damn it! It’s gonna be a great symbol of the fall of the communism. Germans took over us, the Poles, again!” Indeed, in 1989 Poland was in the avant-garde of the political changes in Eastern Block. Following the wave of strikes in 1988, communism had been dismantling peacefully, in conference rooms, through open and the closed-door negotiations. In the spring 1989, the Round Table Talks between the communist government, the anti-communist opposition, and with observers from the Catholic and the Lutheran churches, agreed to carry out the first semi-free election. Held in June 1989, the election brought the overwhelming victory of the Solidarity movement. By November 9, when the demolition of the Berlin Wall began, Poland already had its new government, containing the members of the opposition and the communist political establishment, with Tadeusz Mazowiecki, one of the Solidarity leaders, as Prime Minister.

Some young people took the great political changes as a flow of life. When the news reached Małgosia in her hometown, Białystok, she was preparing for finals in high school: “I was buried with books, notebooks, tired, sleepy, beleaguered by my Polish language teacher. Then, my mother entered the room and said: ‘Małgosia, did you hear that? The Berlin Wall just fell.’ I answered: It’s about time, isn’t it? I had a feeling that this fall of the wall is like… after dinner, mustard.” Doszka, then a student at Jagiellonian University in Kraków, remembers a visit of West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl: “While his bus was passing by Planty Park, he waved to ‘the natives’. And then… he suddenly left.” The fall of the Berlin Wall prompted Chancellor Kohl to interrupt his visit in Poland for one day, November 10, yet in the following day he resumed it.

Other youngsters felt euphoria mixed with anxiety. Nearly all of us remember that “Another Brick in the Wall” by Pink Floyd was being played everywhere. Ola recalls: “I thought: It’s wonderful! The world is changing in front of me. Everything is possible!” In 1990 she traveled with friends from Warsaw to Berlin to the concert “The Wall – Live in Berlin” by Roger Waters and guests, a performance of Pink Floyd’s legendary album. They traveled with no restrictions. Kasia remarked: “I was aware that the world around me was changing, but I was also worrying whether its was happening for real, or whether somebody will soon call it off and everything will be as it always was.” Iza, who when I asked, just happened to be going through archives of photographs and short films from 1989 in Poznań, said: “I am struck by one thing in these images – the faces of ordinary people. Happy faces. So uncommon now.”

For most of us, the Fall of the Berlin Wall was just another, though spectacular, TV event in the time that Padraic Kenney has called “the Carnival of the Revolution.” The Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia in November-December 1989 was awakening memories of the Warsaw Pact’s invasion during the Prague Spring of 1968. Many of us recall the anxiety around the events in the Baltic States. In August 1989 approximately two million people formed a human chain for a distance of nearly 420 miles, across the territories of Lithuanian, Latvian, and Estonian Soviet Republics. That peaceful demonstration, known as the Baltic Way, followed the Estonian declaration of sovereignty in 1988. The outcome of the events in the Baltic States was the ultimate test of whether the change was for real, or whether the Soviet Union was going to wake us up with kalashnikovs. It did not. The subsequent “parade of sovereignties,” when all other Soviet republics declared their independence, led to a peaceful dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Yet, many of us remember also the bloody collapse of the regime of Nicolae Ceaușescu in Romania, instigated by protests in Timișoara, in December 1989. The images from the execution of the Ceaușescus came as a reminder that there are other ways in which political systems collapse. In the following year the wars in Yugoslavia began, getting news big coverage in Eastern Europe. For eight years, daily footages were pushing in front of our eyes images of the horrors of the civil war: mass murders, mass rapes, ethnic cleansing, waves of refugees, and the destruction of the cultural heritage. When the Berlin Wall was falling and millions of people peacefully called for political change all over Eastern Europe, few of us imagined that soon we would see reports of genocide.

1989 was the year of high spirits. The level of activism among young people was very high. It seemed like we were all involved in something—amateur theater, amateur press, music, politics, religious and self-education groups, free travel without money, fraternization, “the first joint and getting high!” University students, who were still very much radicalized, called for impromptu gatherings, and did not miss any opportunity to protest on the streets, challenging the infamous armed troops of the militia—until then a symbol of the brutality of the communist regime. The armed militia for its part actively tried to avoid clashes with students. In Polish cities “the walls” were falling on every street.

The Berlin Wall outlasted its fall, transformed into gravel, and went on a world tour. In the autumn of 1990, Hania travelled from France to Poland, through Berlin. She went to the wall, chipped off, as she said, “one of the last remnants from the Berlin Wall,” and brought it to Poznań. She said she could not do otherwise: “I remember when my father and I travelled to East Berlin to buy the photography accessories. My father had a little photo-studio in Zbąszyń. Before crossing the border with Poland, we were parking our Syrena [a car] in the woods, disabling the engine of the car, and hiding the photography paper, films, etc., as it was illegal to carry them across the border. While in Berlin, my father was always taking me by the Berlin Wall, saying: ‘Remember my child, behind this wall is freedom.’ Soon after, her piece of the wall reached my hands.

In the spring of 1990 university history students in Poznań began occupying, and eventually took over, the big and hideous residence of the communist party, located in the city center. They did it to chase communists away, and to solve the permanent housing problems of their own department, squeezed in one building with all possible modern languages and literatures. This was the building where I began my history studies.

In 1991 the spirit at the university was still anarchic. After a class on the theory of history, instead of going home, we stayed and talked with our lecturer, and with whoever wished to enter our seminar room. We were smoking like chimneys, drinking beer and strong tea, and discussing our present and our future—that is history in the making. Once, a young artist entered the room, listened for a while, then grabbed something from his pocket and said: “Would you like to hold a piece of the Berlin Wall… for a while?” That piece of wall, Hania’s piece, with smudges of paint, circulated from hand to hand. We did not treat it as a relic. We knew that we could do with it anything we wanted, including throwing it through the window. And that was the Berlin Wall. Now dispersed, circulating in a million fragments throughout the world. The feeling of great opportunities and the open world was overwhelming and palpable. Yet, as history taught us, it did not last long.

Let me put that one piece of the Wall in context: children grow up fast in a time of political or social turmoil. While holding that piece of the wall, I was thinking about the moment Martial Law was declared in Poland, in 1981. It was the response of the communist regime to the Solidarity movement. The night before the declaration of Martial Law, my mother and I stood by the window in a dark room of our apartment house, by the road which connected Poznań—the biggest city in western Poland—with the largest Polish and Soviet military bases. Though all the windows in the apartments around us were dark, we knew that all the residents are up, and were doing the same as we did: counting the tanks and military vehicles passing under our windows. I remember after my mother reached one hundred, she burst in tears. Yet, more important than the number of the tanks, was whether they had the red star on them. If they did, it meant that Poland had been invaded. If not, there was still a chance that we could avoid a civil war by negotiations. So, holding a piece of the Berlin Wall eight years after that traumatic event, which I still can vividly see, it seemed somehow surreal.

That evening, this piece of the wall opened up the memory bag for others as well. My experience appeared to be modest compared with that of my older companions. Gwidon, our teacher, as an undergraduate got involved in printing and distributing dissident flyers. Dragged by the militia from the dorm, he remained in prison for half a year. He was beaten during interrogation, though as he always admitted, “not severely,” and eventually released for lack of evidence. Other friends shared their anecdotes about confrontations with the armed militia, mostly recounting physical and moral wounds, bruises, and proudly explaining how they avoided being raped. The tone was not heroic, but picaresque. After all – we were young. And what stands out most from the memories evoked by the fall of the Berlin Wall was the euphoria of freedom and of youth. From the perspective of personal and collective memory, the grand politics appear as nothing more than a colorful background to those things that my friends and I identify as the most important for us, then: love, friendship, activism, exploring the world, and ourselves in the world.

Why do I think this series of memory postcards is important to remember? Because, no matter how historians, politicians, or social scientists evaluate the Revolution of 1989, its most important characteristic was that, for the most part, it was peaceful. It came as a result of negotiation. Had it been otherwise, the memories I just recalled would be very different. There is great value in a peaceful resolution of political conflicts. In the case of East Europeans in 1989, it saved our youth and many lives. Thanks to the peaceful, though noisy, fall of the Berlin Wall, we do not remember it as clearly, as we remember our own most colorful and noisy years.

I would like to thank Justyna Beinek, Małgorzata Fidelis, Andrzej Kałwa, Dobrochna Kałwa, Marzena Lizurej, Izabella Main, Anna Muller, Aleksandra Sekuła, Izabela Skórzyńska, Katarzyna Stańczak-Wiślicz, Błażej Warkocki, Hanna Zaworonko-Olejniczak, for sharing with me their memories.

Student Spotlight: Molly Seidel

Posted on September 4, 2014 in Students by JACF

Welcome to a new academic year, and to a new year of students returning from trips funded by the Nanovic Institute!  To kick off the year, we would like to present Molly Seidel, a Junior majoring in Anthropology and Environmental Science. Molly traveled to Ireland last summer to participate in the Cultural Landscapes of the Irish Coast (CLIC) project, and she has a fascinating and entertaining story to tell!

Seidel, Molly 13-14 smallerGoing to the field for the first time for archaeology work, I knew that I should expect the unexpected. I had traveled thousands of miles to Inishark, an abandoned island off the coast of Western Ireland, for the chance to participate in the Cultural Landscapes of the Irish Coast (CLIC) project.  CLIC is a multi-year project led by Notre Dame professor Dr. Ian Kuijt that works to preserve the cultural heritage of Irish islanders, a perfect opportunity for an anthropology student like me to work with ND professors, professional archaeologists, and other undergraduates.  Inhabited from the Bronze Age to the mid-20th century, Inishark is is a cultural treasure trove for archaeologists, rich with the history of Bronze Age pastoralists, Medieval monks, and hardy farmers of the 19th century.  This year we were focusing on excavating a large home from the 1800s, working with historical records and oral histories of the islands to document the settlement patterns of the island.

Early in the month-long project I was relishing my newfound excavation skills by uncovering various large stones and artifacts under the layers of thick sod and dirt, but I was having a bit more trouble with interpreting what I found. I kept finding pieces of crumbly white rock near larger stones that seemed to make up a larger structure, but it must have collapsed many years ago to leave little more than a disordered pile of rocks. I was digging where a wall of the house should theoretically be, so I asked Frank, one of the professional archaeologists in the group, to take a look. Frank is literally and figuratively a giant of Irish archaeology, his six-foot-five frame slightly stooped from decades of experience digging Medieval and contemporary sites all over the country, so I knew he would be able to give me the advice I needed.

I expressed my befuddlement at what exactly I was digging, whether it really was a wall or just a pile of rocks left over from clearing fields. He knew right away what he was looking at, expert eyes quickly assembling context clues from the area, but he wanted me to think a bit more before he gave me the answer. “The clue for this spot is that white rock,”he stated in his thick Irish accent. “Once you identify it you can understand the context of this area, how the white rock relates to the other stones and features in the site.”

“How exactly do I do that?”I was stumped. I thought the crumbly stone might be a part of a wall, but had no way of being sure with so many stones laying around in disarray.

Frank chuckled at my confusion, then offered “I want you to taste it.”

I must have given Frank a look that implied my total disbelief, so he picked up a piece of the rock, brought it to his lips, and licked it to show that he wasn’t kidding me. “See? You can really taste that limey zing that tells you it’s mortar.”I laughed, shrugged, and tried tasting it myself. He was right; the powdery rock had a slight zing to it rather than the neutral taste of dirt I expected. “And since we know that it’s mortar, that tells us that it’s holding together these larger stones to make a wall,”he said as he grabbed his own trowel, kneeled down, and started digging away.  He excavated more in five minutes than I had in the past half hour, exposing more large stones and small white rocks laid out in a straight line in either direction. With new insight, I could see the places where the mortar fit between larger stones, and suddenly a defined wall of the house seemed to materialize right in front of me. Though the structure had been there the whole time, it took some expert instruction from Frank to help me see the site a little differently in order to more fully understand it.

Seidel, Molly 13-14 (2) smallerDuring the month I spent in Ireland, I had many moments similar to this one as I gained various technical and analytical skills vital to archaeological field work. It is clichéto say that there are some things that you just cannot learn from a book, but I was amazed at how different and intricate archaeological practices were in the field from the lessons I had learned sitting in a classroom. I never could have gotten a feel for changes in soil gradient by just leafing through a textbook, and never could have tasted the difference between mortar and granite while sitting in a lecture hall.  I also relished the chance to learn from professional archaeologists like Frank, closely observing him at work in the field to discover the proper way to hold a trowel or shovel-shave a sod wall, and listening to fascinating stories of local culture tied to the artifacts we were uncovering. My experience in Ireland showed me how archaeology is practiced in the real world, and I am so grateful to the Nanovic Institute for supporting my research and education beyond the classroom. Nanovic gave me the chance to move beyond my comfort zone and see the world in a new way, to open myself to new experiences and to explore incredible places like Inishark. This trip taught me a lot of things, but most of all I’ll always remember Frank’s advice that I shouldn’t be afraid to get down and dirty by licking a few rocks.